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As a science writer, I explore foods of the world as a branch of nutritional anthropology --without traveling beyond the two blocks to my supermarket

How to speak or write artistically about shared ethnic foods and music.
Anne Hart, photography. My kale, bok choy, celery, grains, and tofu with turmeric salad

Here's to writing about food as a branch of nutritional anthropology: I'm taking a look at vegan and vegetarian recipes around the world. And these following recipes follow some seasonal specialty foods served in spots along the Silk Road and beyond. Some people put instrumental music in the background to inspire them to write about food, style, or art. What's unique about writing on the topic of multi-ethnic foods with the ambiance of music in the background, art on the walls, and food styles as fashion?


Should you use active verbs such as design to describe an ambiance of apricot-garbanzo-pine nut salads, a bastion of bastoorma, a camaraderie of cakes? You also can join my Professional, creative, and expressive writing tips: Creativity enhancement Facebook group at: https://www.facebook.com/groups/healthresearchnews/. Or follow my daily blog at: Anne Hart... writes.... - blogspot.com. My Twitter website is at: Anne Hart (@AnneHartWriting) | Twitter.

How would you write about inspiring others to try the yogurt and cucumber cold soup with walnuts and rose petals on page 100 of Batmanglij's book about Persian-style and Silk Road area recipes, especially vegetarian eats, which recipes you can try in the book, Silk Road Cooking, A Vegetarian Journey, by Najmieh Batmanglij, 2004. (Mage Publishers, Washington, DC).This wonderfully illustrated cookbook is chock-full of vegetarian recipes in the Silk Road adventure style of cooking. Excellent for ovo-lacto vegetarians.


Writing about food experiences is like writing about food as anthropology


For example, our neighborhood's early 1950s favorite New York City's childhood Greek, Turkish, Armenian, Sicilian, and Lebanese delicatessen shared one another's music, foods, and decorations, even though the customers had different languages. Also see my other Examiner.com article, A Silk Roads Feast For You.


What they also had in common was the foods of both the Eastern and Western Mediterranean areas, from the Spanish rice and seafood to the Eastern Mediterranean stuffed grape leaves. The link? Sicilian rice balls that contained a hint of raisins, cinnamon, and pine nuts, in common with the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea areas that included trays of foods basted with home-made yogurt.


The food and music links that brought them together was similar foods, stringed instruments, and family camaraderie


The mainspring of my school friend’s life focused on the red brick Mediterranean grocery and sundries store in the mid-1950s. Everything she ate, wore, and owned came from it. A store like this could be found in almost any large city.


The scent accompanied that of onions frying in olive oil, filling the dark, wooden interior with an earthiness. Pickled watermelon and strips of fried eggplant lay on the counter top soon to be wrapped and stored in the cooler. The Greek deli featured foods also familiar in Turkey and Armenia. The music, Konyali, shared music from both Greece and the west coast of Turkey.


The smell of green peppers hung on a string across the ceiling along with platters of Greek spanakopita (spinach and cheese pastries) and the dry, chipped Armenian style beef called bastoorma


My delight had been to be sent to the store’s fragrance cellar where Armenian and Greek versions of bread were baked. There's Armenian akmak (cracker bread) or Turkish ekmek (soft bread). The Greek or Cretan pita is flat but leavened, and round and crusty inside. When you bite a hole, the bread opens up into a pocket. Today, you can find online the recipe for Turkish breakfast buns. See Binnur's Turkish Cookbook for the recipe in English.


Another treat is to stuff flat, lightly toasted pocket bread it with healthy greens, tomatoes, feta, and olive-oil drenched sardine balls stewed in tomato sauce with raisins, vinegar, pine nuts, cinnamon, cloves, and saffron. It reminds me of the sweet and sour fennel and fish (sardine balls) feast from that island off the coast of Sicily.


My school friend used to stuff this bread with hot cubes of roast lamb


She would put chunks of peppers and onions in the sandwich and dust the stuffed sandwich with spices such as lemon pepper and thyme, rosemary, sage, and cumin. The roast lamb had been soaked in vinegar and sugar to make it taste sweet and sour. Over open flames on a charcoal broiler, family members roasted the skewered cubes. Lunch crowds would walk into the store each day to take out the big pocket toasted flat bread full of spice-tendered, marinated lamb cubes.


The cellar had a delicious smell of cinnamon and walnuts. A whiff of pastry from the big ovens, the tang of lemon, the scent of pistachio nuts and saffron or orange blossom water and honey cleared your head.


The immaculately clean dark cellar counter tops smelled of lemon and cold-pressed olive oil. Strains of shared Greek-Turkish-Armenian music wailed delightfully around the corridors of the cellar from an old phonograph. You didn't only listen. You stood up and danced or snapped your fingers to the nuances of wooden spoons clacking in rhythm like castanets.


My school friend never used canned foods. Everything came in bulk, in big barrels, boxes, or jars.


Hand-made coffee grinders turned the beans to the thick, sweet Turkish coffee powder served, when customized to each diner’s order, mixed with sugar, cinnamon, and orange blossom water.


A small, long handled bronze-colored pot heated over a single burner soon brought the coffee to a temperature just below the boiling point. When foam appeared on top, a server poured the syrupy-thick, sweet coffee into tiny china demitasse cups and placed them around each table.


Night after night Greek and Armenian, Lebanese and Iranian, Sicilian, Assyrian, and Moroccan men would drop in for a bit of gossip or to settle the world's business affairs.


Young and old came often with sleeping infants in their laps, not only men, like in the old countries, but with their wives and extended family members, neighbors, and friends.

A large platter of food arrived. Then the nuances of minor-key music pulled many into a dance, a stroll down memory lane, or laughter. Moods, textures, and tones in that store helped to settle local problems. The scent of freshly baking cinnamon, dried fruit, and walnut bread opened a welcoming door, a center of life for the neighborhood.


Persian foods for vegetarians


Regardless of your faith or ethnicity, try these recipes and enjoy these traditional delights of the Silk Road, Persia, and N.W. Africa. You also might add other items that are either nondairy or dairy, (if you're not vegan) depending upon your preference for nondairy or dairy items. For example kefir, cheese, Japanese-style tempeh, Chinese-style tofu, almond cheese, or other cultured milks, fermented nut milk substitutes, or soy products. Soy and nut milk items are not dairy.


Kefir can be made from coconut or almond milk substitutes, for example. Or how about instead a gluten-free vegan feast of salads, grains, beans, greens, roots, and fruits? If you celebrate any holiday or all of them, adjust the food as you desire. Vegan and vegetarian-style foods can be adapted for anyone's holiday or other celebration or for various events.


You can find these vegan and vegetarian spring holiday recipes appealing with their exotic spices, ground pistachio nuts, rice, vegetables, and fruit combinations. Examples might include flax seed meal, ground nuts, carrots, and potatoes


Along the Silk Road, you'll find similar holiday vegan feasts for numerous ethnic groups in the Persian style from the Caucasus to Azerbaijan. Vegans are intrigued by the many vegetarian menu items found in various recipes that are not the usually mutton and carrots with rice dishes you see in travel videos of various stops along the Silk Road.

Here are some Persian gluten-free vegan recipes for your seasonal snacks and vegan meals or plant-based foods of the Silk Road. The idea is to serve a vegan or vegetarian entree for whatever seasonal holiday or even you celebrate.


You can find the za'atar and sumac spices in any Middle Eastern or Mediterranean-style grocery. (Looking for a paperback time-travel novel similar to this type of ambiance? Check out this novel set in the medieval Caucasus in the time-travel adventure novel, Adventures in my beloved, medieval Alania and beyond.)


Persian Casserole (served with pomegranate punch)

Serves a dozen people.


2 large onions, diced

4 stalks celery, diced

2 red bell peppers

4 shredded carrots

8 Idaho potatoes

4 tablespoons of ground, milled flax seed and 3 tablespoons of water

1/2 cup of shelled pistachio nuts, ground

A pinch each of the following spices and herbs: black pepper, thyme, celery seed, oregano, sumac, garlic, onion, turmeric, curry, cumin, parsley, saffron, and zatar.


Preheat oven to 375°F and grease a 9x13 pan or two 8-inch pans with sesame seed oil.

  1. Saute veggies (aside from potatoes) till limp and slightly colored.
  2. Grate potatoes.
  3. Add vegetables, pistachio nuts, ground, and ground flax seed with water to grated potatoes and mix well.
  4. Pour into prepared pan and bake 45-60 min or until light brown and crusty.

Garbanzo/Chick Pea Patties ( or fava bean tameya)

2 cups cooked or canned (drained and rinsed) chickpeas/garbanzos

1 clove of peeled garlic

1 tablespoon of tahini paste or ground sesame seeds to a paste consistency in a blender or food processor. You can blend chick peas with a little water or a little olive oil, grape seed oil, or sesame seed oil to form a paste consistency or use raw tahini paste/sauce. Or make your own tahini paste by liquefying sesame seeds to a paste consistency in your blender with some water, lemon juice, and/or oil.

1/4 teaspoon of black pepper, celery seed, or any other spice you prefer

1/2 teaspoon red cayenne pepper

1/2 teaspoon of honey (optional)

1/2 teaspoon of turmeric

1/2 teaspoon of ground coriander

1 teaspoon of cumin

1/3 cup of chopped fresh dill or cilantro

2 cups of healthy oil for frying such as olive oil, macademia nut oil, grapeseed oil, rice bran oil, or sesame seed oil.

1/2 cup of sesame seeds

2 tablespoons of ground, milled flax seed and 3 tablespoons of water

Garnish: chopped parsley, cilantro, basil, and mint or plain nonfat yogurt.

Matzo for eating with the patties. You can substitute cooked fava beans (tameya) for the chick peas. But if you're allergic to fava beans as many people are, use chick peas/garbanzo beans. If you want to make your own tahini ground sesame paste, there are many recipes online such as: How To Make Tahini — Cooking Lessons from The Kitchn |, How To Make Tahini Paste - Cinnamon Spice & Everything Nice, or How To Make Raw Tahini • The Healthy Eating Site. For more recipes, just put in key words into your search engine, "homemade tahini."




Combine all ingredients except the garnishes in your blender or food processor. Pulse until you have a soft patty. Cover and refrigerate for 30 minutes or overnight. In a deep wok, skillet, or frying pan, heat up a cup or two of oil over medium heat.

Remove the dough from the refrigerator. Spread the sesame seeds on a plate. Place a bowl of warm water next to your cooking area to wet your hands. Separate the dough into lumps the size of walnuts. Flatten each lump of dough in your palms into a patty the size of a burger.


Fry the patties for three minutes on each side, or until golden brown. Add more oil when necessary. You may have to use 2 cups of oil for all the dough. Each patty should be covered with oil. When light brown on each side, remove the patties and drain on paper towels.


Arrange each of the patties on a serving dish. Garnish with parsley, basil, mint, and serve with warm crackers and yogurt or kefir. This is in the Silk Road tradition. You can serve brown rice served as a side dish with this vegan feast would be Persian saffron rice with chelow (golden crust).


To make this saffron rice dish, cook 3 cups of washed, long-grain Basmati brown rice in 8 cups of water. Add 1 cup of nonfat plain yogurt to the cooked rice. Dissolve 1/2 teaspoon of ground saffron threads in 2 tablespoons of hot water. Mix the saffron into the cooked rice.


Do you want a crust on top of your rice?


Some styles of Persian cooking features rice with a crust on top. If you want a crust on top of your rice, (the chelow) then whisk 3/4 cup of nonfat yogurt with 1/4 cup of oil, 1 tablespoon of saffron, 2 tablespoons of ground flax seeds with a little water, and a few tablespoons of the cooked rice and spread this on the bottom of a pan. Then put the rice on top of it and bake the rice until the rice and yogurt mixture on the bottom of the pan forms a crust.


If you're not making a vegan meal, two beaten eggs or egg whites can be mixed into the chelow/rice crust mixture before baking on the bottom of the pan. This forms a thicker golden crust. Add saffron and water mixture (dissolved saffron) to this crust mixture before baking.


Bake the rice until a golden crust forms on the bottom of the pan. Then turn the rice mixture upside down so that the golden crust is on top. Cut into squares.  If you don't want a rice crust, substitute six layers of spinach or collards (stems removed) fitted into the bottom of the pan. But the rice crust is more aesthetic than the baked lettuce.

Variations include rice and cardamom (kermani polow with saffron and pistachios) in the Persian, Azeri, and Caucasus Mountains tradition. As condiments, you'd add a tablespoon of organic rose petals and a cup of fresh, chopped dill. Chopped almonds may be substituted for pistachio nuts.


You also could mix rice with 4 cardomom pods, crushed, and 1/4 teaspoon of saffron threads dissolved in 2 tablespoons of water to add to cooked rice. The rice can be cooked in vegetable stock. Use brown basmati long-grain rice because it has more nutrition than white rice.


Serve fresh fruit for dessert such as dark cherries and blueberries, strawberries, or apples baked in pomegranate juice. Menus found in eateries and in some homes along the Silk Road traditionally eat carrot palov with cumin.


To make Silk Road style Palov with cumin, use short grain rice. In a nonstick pot or wok, heat a tablespoon of oil over medium heat. Add a handful of almonds and currents (raisins and almonds are familiar to Ashkenazim). Stir fry the almonds and currents in the wok and set aside after draining off any oil on paper towels. But save the oil in the wok, skillet, or frying pan.


Add a pinch of cumin and cook for a few seconds, until you smell the perfumed aroma


Use a cover if the cumin seeds start to pop at at you. Add a handful of chopped onions and fry for 10 minutes or more until golden brown. Add a cup of chopped or shredded carrots along with 1/2 seeded red bell pepper. You can also add a pinch of cayenne or chopped, seeded serrano chili.


Add two cups clean, washed, long-grain brown Basmati rice. Stir fry for a few minutes. Then add a pinch of turmeric and some water to cover the rice. You can substitute 1/2 teaspoon of saffron dissolved in 2 tablespoons of hot water for the turmeric or use both.


Add 2 cups chopped fresh cilantro just as the rice is about to finish cooking. About 3 cups of water may be needed to soften the rice enough for cooking until chewy. Simmer the rice for 30 minutes. To keep the cilantro fresh and crisp add it only as the rice is done. Add to the cooked rice a handful each of chopped almonds, currents, and any other chopped green vegetable you prefer such as parsley or spinach along with the cilantro.


Serve with fresh sliced or chopped tomatoes and sliced cucumbers. If desired, add 1/2 teaspoon of ground cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon of ground cloves, and 2 pinches of ground cardamom. This variation also is known as Chahar Masala. Enjoy a Silk Road feast. The vegan-style feasts of the Silk Road are traditionally served with pomegranate punch.


Pomegranate Punch with Rose Petal Extract (Water)


To make Silk Road style pomegranate punch, mix a quart of pomegranate juice with your favorite spices such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamon, and lemon-tasting tart sumac spice. For a slightly peppery zest, you can add a pinch of ginger.


Or serve a punch made of pomegranate juice and a teaspoon of chopped crystallized ginger topped with a pinch of almond meal. Also you can mix rose petal water with pomegranate juice, about 1/4 cup of rose petal extract to a quart of pomegranate juice.

The pomegranate juice also may be mixed half and half with dark red cherry juice topped with a sprig of mint. Or you can mix dark purple grape juice with pomegranate juice. Another version is to mix a quart of pomegranate juice with 1/4 cup of lime or lemon juice and float dehydrated nectarines on top.


Stir-fried celery roots


If you're looking for Persian-style and Silk Road area recipes, try the book, Silk Road Cooking, A Vegetarian Journey, by Najmieh Batmanglij, 2004. (Mage Publishers, Washington, DC).This wonderfully illustrated cookbook is chock-full of vegetarian recipes in the Silk Road adventure style of cooking. Excellent for ovo-lacto vegetarians.


Try the stir-fried celery roots or the chickpea vegetable fritters, and the Armenian bulgur and pomegranate stuffed with grapevine leaves in this book of recipes. You mix lentils with bulgur wheat, pitted prunes, spices, mint, parsley, and pomegranate paste with lime juice and chili flakes in the sauce. It's on page 84, under the "salads" chapter. It's great. When you want to eat fermented items, try the yogurt and cucumber cold soup with walnuts and rose petals on page 100 of Batmanglij's book.


On another topic: You also may wish to check out the slideshow on Examiner.com of 50 of Hart's various paperback book covers. Also you can see some of Anne Hart's paperback books at: iUniverse or search by paperback book title on Amazon.com. For example, see: Neurotechnology with Culinary Memoirs from the Daily Nutrition & Health Reporter. Oct 10, 2008. You also can check out my audio talk on how to write scripts for infomercials at the Internet Archive website at: https://archive.org/details/HowToWriteAndProduceInfomercialsOnline.